Level Computation (Rise and Fall / Height of Collimation)

Levelling (or Leveling) is a branch of surveying, the object of which is: i) to find the elevations of given points with respect to a given or assumed datum, and ii) to establish points at a given or assumed datum. The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed while the second … Continue reading Level Computation (Rise and Fall / Height of Collimation)

Traverse Forward Computation Program

From a given starting point, or station, of known or assigned coordinates, the horizontal distance is measured to another point, then to another convenient point, and then to succeeding points, to close on the original point or on any point of known coordinates. A succession of such lines or courses forms a traverse. The horizontal … Continue reading Traverse Forward Computation Program

Cadastral Hand Held GPS Point Computation

In general handheld GPS receivers are used for absolute positioning or for relative positioning using DGPS-services or WAAS/EGNOS signals. The positioning is realized using code pseudo-ranges. Moreover it is well known that some of the handheld receivers use phase-smoothed code for positioning. This means that the phase signal is available and may be used for … Continue reading Cadastral Hand Held GPS Point Computation

Generate Observed Theodolite Observations From Angles

As any surveyor should understand, all measurements are in error. We try to minimize error and calculate reasonable tolerances, but error will always be there. Not occasionally; not frequently; always. In the interest of more accurate measurements, we look for better instruments and better procedures. The theodolite is an instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical … Continue reading Generate Observed Theodolite Observations From Angles

Slope Correction and Vertical Angle Reduction Program

A slope is the numerical measure of a line's inclination relative to the horizontal. In analytic geometry, the slope of any line, ray, or line segment is the ratio of the vertical to the horizontal distance between any two points on it (“slope equals rise over run”). This program is particularly useful for Slope Correction … Continue reading Slope Correction and Vertical Angle Reduction Program