Levelling (or Leveling) is a branch of surveying, the object of which is: i) to find the elevations of given points with respect to a given or assumed datum, and ii) to establish points at a given or assumed datum. The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed while the second operation is required in the setting out of all kinds of engineering works. Levelling deals with measurements in a vertical plane.
To determine the difference in level between points on the surface of the ground a ‘series’ of levels will need to be carried out; this is called a level traverse or level run.
There are two method of levelling:
- Rise & Fall method and
- Height of collimation (height of instrument) methods
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